Fokker: A Brief History

For the bulk of the 20th century, Fokker was a big name among European aircraft manufacturers. Overall, it…

Fokker: A Brief History

For the bulk of the 20th century, Fokker was a big name among European aircraft manufacturers. Overall, it produced commercial planes for more than eight decades, before eventually going bankrupt just before the turn of the century. Let’s examine the history of this Dutch manufacturer, whose best years came in the interwar period.

The Fokker 100 first flew just 10 years before the company’s demise. Photo: Bernal Saborio via Flickr

Initially based in Germany

The manufacturer takes its name from its founder, Anton Herman Gerard ‘Anthony’ Fokker, who built his first aircraft in 1910. Having spent most of his childhood in the Netherlands, Fokker was studying in neighboring Germany at the time. He stayed there to make use of the better opportunities present, founding Fokker Aeroplanbau in Berlin in 1912.

Later that year, he relocated to Schwerin in northern Germany, and renamed the company Fokker Aviatik GmbH. With the First World War starting just two years later, many of the company’s early aircraft had a military focus. One such aircraft was the Fokker M.5, which became the Fokker Eindecker after synchronization gear was developed.

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Fokker Dr.I Replica
A replica of the Red Baron’s Fokker Dr.I triplane. Photo: Oliver Thiele via Wikimedia Commons

This technology allowed the plane’s machine gun to fire automatically between its propeller blades, leading to a period of German aerial superiority. Fokker developed several biplane designs during the war, such as the D.V, D.VI, and D.VII. It also made the Dr.I triplane, flown, among others, by the ‘Red Baron,’ Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen.

The golden age

After the war, Fokker moved back to the Netherlands, taking his business with him to Amsterdam. Interestingly, he did so under a new name, Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek (Dutch Aircraft Factory), to distance himself from his involvement in the previous conflict.

In any case, the interwar period proved to be one of Fokker’s most prosperous times. Indeed, it had become the world’s largest aircraft manufacture by the end of the 1920s. This came about thanks to the success of the Fokker F.VII Trimotor, flown by a total of 54 carriers.

Fokker F.VII
The F.VII’s success helped Fokker to become the world’s largest aircraft manufacturer by the late 1920s. Photo: Walter Mittelholzer via Wikimedia Commons

Fokker moved to the US in 1923, where the F.VII eventually gained a significant share of the passenger-carrying market. By 1936, this was as high as 40%. He also took the opportunity to establish an American branch for his company there. He eventually died in New York in December 1939 aged just 49, having suffered from pneumococcal meningitis.

Post-war operations and bankruptcy

Following Fokker’s death and the Second World War, the company’s output reduced. Nonetheless, it remained operational for half a century after the conflict, producing several successful airliners. In 1946, it conceptualized a jetliner known as the F26 ‘Phantom,’ but it achieved a breakthrough the following decade with the F27 ‘Friendship.’

The F27 first flew in 1955, and Fokker produced 586 examples of the ‘Friendship’ between then and 1987. 1987 also saw the entry into service of the Fokker 50, which the company designed as a modernized version of the F27. It also produced a cargo variant known as the Fokker 60. All in all, it built 213 of these modernized turboprops between 1985 and 1997.

VLM Fokker 50
The Fokker 50 was a development of the F27 ‘Friendship.’ Photo: Jake Hardiman | Simple Flying

As far as jetliners are concerned, Fokker first entered this domain in 1967 with the F28 ‘Fellowship.’ This was a rear-engined, five-abreast regional jet with four variants, whose capacities ranged from 65 (-1000 and -3000 variants) to 85 passengers (-4000). It was developed into the company’s newer Fokker 70 and Fokker 100 in the 1980s and ’90s.

Fokker’s demise in the 1990s came about due to increased competition from Airbus and Boeing’s smaller aircraft. This saturated the market for the Fokker 70 and 100. As such, it was declared bankrupt in March 1996, following the withdrawal of funds from Germany’s Daimler-Benz, and a failed acquisition by Canada’s Bombardier Aviation.

Which Fokker aircraft have you flown on over the years? Do you have any particular favorites? Let us know your thoughts and experiences in the comments.

Source : Simple Flying More   

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La Palma Airport Shut Down Amid Volcanic Eruption

In Spain’s Canary Islands, La Palma Airport (SPC) was shut down on Saturday because of an ash cloud…

La Palma Airport Shut Down Amid Volcanic Eruption

In Spain’s Canary Islands, La Palma Airport (SPC) was shut down on Saturday because of an ash cloud spewing from an erupting volcano. The Cumbre Vieja volcano, which began erupting a week ago, has intensified recently with another volcanic vent opening up.

La Palma Airport is closed because of volcanic ash. Photo: Getty Images

The volcanic eruption on La Palma, which has a population of 85,000, is the first since 1971 and has caused the evacuation of around 7,000 people. Spanish airport operator Aena decided to close the airport following an accumulation of ash on the airport’s runway.

Some flights to the Canary Islands have been suspended

In a statement on Aena’s website and postings on social media, the airport operator says that other airports in the Canary Islands are still open. However, some airlines are suspending flights to La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife Norte, and Tenerife Sur due to the danger posed by volcanic ash.

Airport workers were kept busy trying to sweep volcanic ash off the runway as people came to the airport only to find that their flights had been canceled. With the airport closed, La Palma’s main port in Santa Cruz de la Palma was busy with people trying to escape to other islands. When speaking to a reporter for Reuters, 47-year-old Carlos Garcia said:

“I am going to Barcelona. But because we can’t fly, we are taking the ferry to Los Cristianos (on Tenerife island), and from there, we will go to the airport and fly to Barcelona.”

While the airport does get some charter flights from Germany, Holland, Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom, it is mainly served by inter-island flights operated by Binter Canarias and CanaryFly.

La Palma Airport
Airport workers are clearing volcanic ash from the runway. Photo: Aena

The lava is two kilometers from the sea

On Friday, emergency crews were forced to move back as the erupting volcano spewed molten rock and ash over a large area. In the southwest of the island, rivers of molten lava have destroyed hundreds of homes with about two kilometers left before the lava reaches the sea.

Once the lava reaches the sea, a thermal shock will be caused by the vast temperature difference between the molten lava and the seawater. When the two combine, it will create acid clouds and gases that can be fatal to humans and animals. When being interviewed by Spanish newspaper Dario AS professor of Geology at the University of Las Palmas, José Mangas said:

“It’s like mixing boiling oil with water.”

Of more immediate concern for the residents of La Palma is the vast ash cloud rising from the volcano. Volcanic ash can damage people’s airways and lungs, and eyes. The authorities on the island are telling people that if they must leave their homes, they should wear goggles and masks to protect themselves.

The eruption has entered a new phase

According to vulcanologists, the eruption has entered a new phase following the opening of a second vent with drones showing that the volcano’s cone had broken.

CanaryFly
CanaryFly connects La Palma with Gran Canaria. Photo: Lasse B via Wikipedia.

In a news conference reported on by Reuters, the director of volcano response committee Pevolca, Miguel Angel Morcuende, said:

“It is not unusual in this type of eruption that the cone of the volcano fractures. A crater is formed that does not support its own weight and the cone breaks.”

La Palma is one of the eight main islands that make up the Canary Islands archipelago. Located in the Atlantic Ocean 62 miles off the coast of Morocco, Spain’s Canary Islands are a popular vacation spot due to year-round spring-like weather.

Has the volcanic eruption on La Palma changed your vacation plans? If so, please tell us about it in the comments.

Source : Simple Flying More   

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