Genus (noun, “GEE-nus,” plural, Genera, “GEN-er-ah”)
This is a word used in taxonomy for a group of closely related species. Taxonomy is the study of how organisms relate to each other. Genus is a very close relation — the species share a common ancestor that is relatively recent. Over time, groups of organisms in the genus adapted to slightly different ways of life. They formed different species.
For example, the genus Panthera is a group of closely related big cats. Lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and snow leopards are all members of genus Panthera. They are not as closely related to smaller cats such as the jungle cat, sand cat and domestic cat. Those cats are in genus Felis. But they’re all cats. Both genera are in the family Felidae.
The genus is the first part of the two-part species naming system called “binomial nomenclature.” This is a formal system to name living things. Sometimes scientists call these names an organism’s “scientific name” or “Latin name.” Each two-part name includes the genus and the species. For example, humans aren’t just sapiens — that’s our species. Our full scientific name is Homo sapiens, which includes our genus Homo.
In a sentence
Once dismissed as just another Apatosaurus, scientists now argue that a large dinosaur deserves its own genus — Brontosaurus.
People default to adding when solving puzzles and problems, even when subtracting works better. That could underlie some modern-day excesses.
Picture a bridge made of Lego blocks. One side has three support pieces, the other two. How would you stabilize the bridge? Most people would add a piece to the short stack, a new study suggests. But why not remove a piece from the taller stack? When it comes to Lego blocks, ingredients in a recipe or words in an essay, people prefer to add, not subtract.
People can be nudged to subtract instead. But effectively changing that preference seems to require reminders or rewards. That’s the finding of a new study. Its authors shared details of it in the April 8 Nature.
This preference for adding isn’t limited to building blocks, cooking and writing. It might also contribute to modern-day excesses. Think about cluttered homes, excess government rules and even a tendency to pollute, says Benjamin Converse. He’s a behavioral scientist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He worries that because of this bias toward adding, “We’re missing an entire class of solutions.”
Converse was part of a team that first found this bias when they asked 1,585 study participants to tackle eight puzzles and problems. Each could be solved by adding or removing things. One puzzle required shading or erasing squares on a grid to make some pattern symmetrical. In another, people could add or subtract items on a list of intended destinations to improve their vacation experience.
In each case, the vast majority of people chose to add not subtract. For instance, of 94 participants who completed the grid task, 73 added squares. Another 18 removed squares. Three simply reworked the original number of squares.
The researchers suspect that most people default to adding simply because subtracting never even comes to mind. But through a series of controlled trials, the team was able to nudge recruits toward the minus option.
Hint, hint . . .
In one test, the team offered 197 people wandering around a crowded university site a dollar to solve a puzzle. People viewed a Lego structure. It had a figure standing atop a platform with a large pillar behind her. A single block on one corner of the pillar supported a flat roof. Researchers asked the participants to stabilize the roof to avoid squashing the figure.
The researchers warned 98 participants that “each piece you add costs 10 cents.” Yet only 40 of them thought to remove the destabilizing block so that the roof could rest on top of the wide pillar below. The other 99 participants were told about the 10-cent cost of each extra block. But these people also learned “removing pieces is free.” That cue prompted 60 of them to remove the block.
Practice did help participants call to mind that elusive option of removing (subtracting) something. In a variation on the grid test, where subtraction yielded the best solution, participants got three practice runs. When they performed the actual task, more people now chose to subtract squares than did those who worked this problem without practice.
Throwing unrelated information at people reduced the chance they would subtract something. In fact, people added even more when fighting information overload, the new study reports.
“When people try to make something better … they don’t think that they can remove or subtract unless they are somehow prompted to do so,” says Gabrielle Adams. She’s a behavioral scientist who also works at the University of Virginia.
On some deep level, people seem to realize that subtraction comes less naturally than addition, the authors say. That may be what’s behind such sayings as “less is more” and Marie Kondo’s now infamous recommendation that people rid themselves of everything that fails to spark joy.
But curbing our love of excess will take more than nudges and a clear mind, suspects Hal Arkes. He’s a researcher at Ohio State University in Columbus. There, he studies judgement and decision-making. Organizational and political leaders really hate cutting the fat, he notes. They seem to feel that “if you add more people and more dollars, you won’t make any enemies,” Arkes says. “You’ll just make friends.” For them, he argues, “subtraction has serious downsides.”
The French Grand Prix saw one of the closest on-track battles yet between title rivals Max Verstappen and Lewis Hamilton, with the lead swinging back and forth right up to the penultimate lap at Circuit Paul Ricard. Verstappen predicted that the rest of the season would be just as titanic a battle between the pair, after coming out on top at a track traditionally seen as a Mercedes stronghold. “As you could see, the whole race we were fighting each other," the Red Bull driver told the media afterwards. "I think it will be like this for the rest of the season.” Verstappen had claimed pole position for the race in Saturday's qualifying session and initially got a good start to the race, only to brake too deep into turn 2 and hand the advantage to Hamilton....
If a tree farts in the forest, does it make a sound? No. But it does add a smidge of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. A team of ecologists measured these gases, or “tree farts,” released by dead trees in ghost forests. These spooky woodlands form when rising sea levels drown a forest, leaving behind a marsh full of skeletal dead trees. The new data suggest these trees generate about one-fifth of the greenhouse gases from ghost forests. The other emissions come from the soggy soils. Researchers report their findings online May 10 in Biogeochemistry. Explainer: Why sea levels aren’t rising at the same rate globallyGhost forests are expected to expand as climate change raises sea levels. So scientists have been curious how much climate-warming...
By: Hans Themistode From the moment Jermall Charlo vs. Juan Macias Montiel was announced, most of the boxing world groaned in disappointment. The overwhelming thought process was that Charlo would simply run right over his man. Yet, after a closer than expected contest, many were forced to eat their words. Both Montiel and Charlo stood toe to toe at the Toyota...
Science, technology, and engineering solutions provider KBR () has won a services contract for the PATRIOT missile system from the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA). This includes analytical, engineering, technical, programmatic, and logistics services. The PATRIOT missile system, in use by a number of NATO countries globally, is an advanced surface-to-air guided air and missile defense system. KBR Government Solutions President Byron Bright said, “We have a long history supporting NSPA and we are proud to continue this trusted relationship.” (See KBR stock chart on TipRanks) Bright added, “KBR’s expertise in cutting-edge research will assist NSPA in responding to today’s dynamic threat environment in multiple theatres worldwide.” The contract is for...
By: Hector Franco LAS VEGAS – At the Theater at the Virgin Hotels, in Las Vegas, Nevada on ESPN, pound-for-pound star Naoya Inoue (21-0, 18 KOs) faced off against the Philippines Michael Dasmarinas (30-3-1, 20 KOs) for his WBA and IBF bantamweight titles. Inoue, a three-division champion, having held titles at light flyweight, super flyweight, and bantamweight, would participate...
Try to see things from the other person’s point of view Usually when we disagree with someone it is because we can only see things from our perspective. And usually, we believe that we are right. But the issue is that the other person thinks exactly the same way- they believe that they are right as well! So, to disagree well, try to see things from the other person’s point of view. How do you do this? Imagine you were the other person, with the same kind of upbringing, and life experiences. Imagine that you went through everything they’ve been through. If you can slow down and allow yourself a few minutes to think like them, you may begin to see how they could think the way that they do. When you listen, try to understand rather than to be understood I’m...
Artwork by Astrology by WITCH TIPSThis week brings emotions to the forefront of our hearts, which is why it’s important to speak our truth and let others know our stance on matters. Don’t hold back! Open up! Venus, who’s in Gemini, connects with Saturn, who’s in Aquarius, under the Leo First Quarter Moon on May 19th. This will give us insight into our creative desires and passions. Gemini Season begins on May 20th, starting off a 30 day period geared towards improving communication and understanding. The Gemini Sun and Jupiter, who’s...
We recently saw a render of what an all-electric 3 Series could look like, if BMW were to make such a car right now. To be honest, we don’t think there’s going to be an...
The article Future BMW 3 Series Electric gets a new Photoshop image appeared first on BMW BLOG
Discover how to stay harder longer…How To Stay Harder Longer & Get Erections “On-Command” Using A Little-Known Trick Scientists Are Just Beginning To Understand… Can you remember the last time you got a hard-on without any extra stimulation? Maybe you were thinking about something extra naughty… Or saw a really gorgeous woman walking by, and let your mind wander… Hell, maybe you got one for no reason at all… But maybe you can't remember–because it doesn't happen all that often anymore. This is completely normal for a lot of guys. Whether you're not quite on your “A-game” anymore,...