SpaceX to launch newest GPS satellite on reused booster

SpaceX is preparing to launch another next-generation Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite for the United… The post SpaceX to launch newest GPS satellite on reused booster appeared first on

SpaceX to launch newest GPS satellite on reused booster

SpaceX is preparing to launch another next-generation Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite for the United States Space Force. Falcon 9 will lift the GPS-III-SV05 satellite on June 17 from SLC-40 at the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida.  The 15 minute launch window opens at 12:09 PM EDT (16:09 UTC).

This will be the 19th Falcon 9 launch in 2021. GPS-III-SV05 is the company’s fourth overall mission for the GPS program, and the first to use a flight-proven first stage booster.

Space Launch Delta 45 predicts a 70% chance of acceptable weather conditions for launch on June 17 as well as for the backup opportunity 24 hours later. Cumulus cloud rules affect both days. Upper-level winds and surface electric field rules will come into play on launch day, while the backup day has thick-cloud layer constraints.

Mission Preparations

At 3:30 PM EDT on June 12, SpaceX completed a successful static fire of Falcon 9’s first stage booster, B1062-2. After the test, the first stage and attached second stage were rolled back into the hangar at SLC-40 to be mated to the encapsulated GPS-III-SV05 spacecraft, before returning to the pad prior to launch.

On the afternoon of June 13, tug Finn Falgout departed Port Canaveral with drone ship Just Read the Instructions in tow. On June 16, the two ships arrived at the landing zone about 642 kilometers downrange from the launch site. GO Quest, the drone ship support vessel, also arrived near the recovery zone shortly after.

For this mission, a new vessel has joined SpaceX’s oceangoing recovery fleet. HOS Briarwood will attempt to recover Falcon 9’s payload fairing halves after they splash down in the Atlantic Ocean.

Similar in size to Shelia Bordelon, the previous temporary fairing recovery vessel, HOS Briarwood can be booked as a “flotel” and features an enormous crane, along with seemingly just enough deck space to support two recovered fairing halves.

HOS Briarwood, a temporary addition to the SpaceX recovery fleet, in Port Canaveral prior to the GPS-III-SV05 mission – via Stephen Marr for NSF

Space Force Advancing Reusability 

Falcon 9 booster B1062-2 will support this mission. This first stage previously launched GPS-III-SV04, the previous GPS mission, in November 2020.

GPS-III-SV05 Updates

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  • Prior to the GPS-III-SV04 launch, SpaceX announced that the US Space Force would allow the company to recover and reuse Falcon 9 boosters on national security missions, which includes the GPS program. 

    In order to certify SpaceX’s recovery and reuse process, B1062 was specifically reserved for GPS-III-SV05. After returning to port following the GPS-III-SV04 mission, the Space Force conducted a lengthy review of the booster and SpaceX’s refurbishment procedures, before finally clearing it to launch. 

    Last year, SpaceX was also awarded a “fleet surveillance” contract from the Space Force, which gives the branch insight into all of SpaceX’s non-military launches. The agreement was then expanded after the company won the NSSL Phase 2 launch contract in August.

    Going forward, SpaceX will be able to fly other boosters on national security missions, not just ones that previously flew government payloads.

    The GPS-III-SV05 satellite is the fifth of 10 spacecraft in the third generation of GPS satellites. This generation includes improvements such as more accurate precise location tracking and time referencing. 

    The GPS-III-SV05 satellite prior to encapsulation – via Lockheed Martin

    The aging second generation of GPS satellites were launched from 1989 to 2016. Soon the GPS-III and GPS-III Follow-On satellites will replace some of the older satellites before replacing the second generation entirely. 

    The GPS-II generation of satellites were built by Rockwell, then by Boeing, as well as Lockheed Martin. This time around, the GPS-III satellites are based on Lockheed Martin’s A2100 modernized (A2100M) satellite bus.

    A2100M is Lockheed Martin’s Medium Earth Orbit and Geostationary Orbit satellite bus offering. First launched in 1996, this bus has been used for many military and commercial satellites including the SBIRS-GEO satellites, the Arabsat 6A telecommunications satellite, and the Advanced Extremely High Frequency military satellite constellation.

    A more modern version of the A2100, known as the A2100M (modernized), will be used for the GPS-III Follow-On. These satellites will provide even more accurate location tracking and time referencing, but the satellites are also designed to be serviceable on orbit. This can allow the satellites to be upgraded over time. 22 of these satellites will launch starting in 2026.

    In 2008, Lockheed Martin won the contract for the GPS-III satellites. The first GPS-III satellite launched on an expendable Falcon 9 in December 2018. The second GPS-III satellite was launched on the final Delta IV Medium in August 2019.

    This was followed by the third and fourth GPS-III satellites on Falcon 9 in 2020. GPS-III-SV03 was launched by Falcon 9 booster B1060 in June 2020. GPS-III-SV04 was launched by Falcon 9 booster B1062, the same booster to launch the GPS-III-SV05 satellite.

    Falcon 9 B1062 launches the GPS-III-SV04 mission – via Julia Bergeron for NSF/L2

    GPS-III-SV05 weighs approximately 4,311 kilograms, the same as GPS-III-SV03 and GPS-III-SV04. Every GPS-III satellite is equipped with a single LEROS-1 apogee propulsion system as well as twin solar arrays for electrical power.

    The navigation payload for the satellite is provided by L3Harris Technologies. Both GPS-III and GPS-III Follow-On will have a lifetime of 15+ years.

    GPS-III-SV05 was completed during Q1 of 2021 at the Lockheed Martin A2100 production facility in Waterton, Colorado. On April 6, it was transported to Florida by a C-17 Globemaster transport aircraft. There it was taken to the Astrotech Space Operations facility to begin final preparations, which included final testing and fueling of the satellite. 

    After fueling, the satellite was then encapsulated inside Falcon 9’s 5.2 meter diameter payload fairing. 

    Launch Timeline 

    As the countdown clock reaches T-0, Falcon 9 will lift off and begin pitching downrange towards the northeast, targeting a 55 degree inclined orbit.

    At T+2:32, B1062’s nine Merlin engines will shut down, followed shortly by stage separation and second stage ignition.

    Falcon 9’s payload fairing will separate at T+3:47, exposing GPS-III SV05 to space. The second stage’s Merlin vacuum engine will shut down at T+8:07. 

    B1062 will touch down on the deck of Just Read the Instructions roughly 8 minutes and 30 seconds after launch.

    At T+1:03:35, the second stage will ignite for a second and final time to place the payload into a Medium Earth transfer orbit. GPS-III-SV05 will be deployed at T+1:29:20, and will eventually use its own propulsion to circularize its orbit.

    SpaceX has one more mission planned for June, Falcon 9 B1060-8 launching from SLC-40 with the Transporter-2 rideshare mission. Meanwhile, the drone ship Of Course I Still Love You is currently en route to the west coast via the Panama Canal to support a launch manifest at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.

    (Lead photo via SpaceX)

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    Shenzhou-12 and three crew members successfully launch to new Chinese space station

    The first crewed mission to the new Chinese Space Station has successfully launched. Shenzhou-12, carrying… The post Shenzhou-12 and three crew members successfully launch to new Chinese space station appeared first on

    Shenzhou-12 and three crew members successfully launch to new Chinese space station

    The first crewed mission to the new Chinese Space Station has successfully launched. Shenzhou-12, carrying three taikonauts, lifted off on Thursday June 17 at 01:22 UTC from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in the Gobi Desert in northwest China.

    Shenzhou-12 launched on top of the human-rated Long March 2F vehicle, which is based on the retired Long March 2E rocket formerly used to launch geostationary satellites. Also known as the Chang Zheng 2F (CZ-2F), the launcher is equipped with two stages and four liquid rocket boosters, all fueled by nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH).

    These hypergolic fuels are very toxic, which would become a significant problem if the rocket’s remains were to impact a populated area. Future Chinese launch vehicles are being designed to avoid using these propellants.

    The vehicle is also equipped with a Soyuz-style fairing, with grid fins and a solid-fueled escape motor on top, to ensure that the crew would be able to escape a failing booster. This technology is based on the abort system used on the Soyuz carrier rocket, which has been used a few times over the years to save flight crews, most recently the Soyuz MS-10 crew in October 2018.

    Like the abort system, the Shenzhou spacecraft that will be flying to the new Chinese space station this week draws heavily on Soyuz technology. Shenzhou was approved in 1992 as part of the Chinese human spaceflight initiative known as Project 921, and has a design layout very similar to the long-serving Soyuz spacecraft built in Russia.

    Render of fairing separation as Shenzhou-12 ascends towards orbit – via Mack Crawford for NSF/L2

    In the front of the spacecraft, the orbital module for Shenzhou-12 and future spacecraft contains an androgynous docking ring based on Russian APAS technology (used on ISS), which will be used to dock to the Tianhe core module. In the middle, the descent module containing the crew is a scaled-up version of the Soyuz descent module with a very similar mold line. The rear of the spacecraft is a service module equipped with engines, fuel tanks, and solar panels, much like the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft.

    Shenzhou-12 Updates
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  • The mission will be commanded by Nie Haisheng, who is making his third spaceflight. He has previously flown on the Shenzhou-6 and Shenzhou-10 missions, the latter flying to the Tiangong-1 space station in 2013. Nie, from Hubei province, is 56 years old and is a major general in the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). At the end of this mission, he will have spent approximately 114 days in space, becoming the all-time Chinese record holder for the longest time total in space.

    Nie is accompanied by two crew members, referred to as “operators.” The first Shenzhou-12 operator is Liu Boming, 54, from Heilongjiang, who previously flew on Shenzhou-7 in 2008 and became a participant in China’s first ever spacewalk. The  second is Tang Hongbo, who like Liu, is also a PLAAF fighter pilot. Both crewmembers and their commander will stay on board the new space station for approximately 90 days before coming home in September.

    The three crew members, wearing launch and entry suits based on a reverse-engineered Sokol suit provided by Russia, will walk out past military officers and a crowd of well-wishers and board a bus to the launch pad. After boarding the Shenzhou descent module crew compartment, they’ll launch on a 41 degree inclination relativie to the equator, into an orbit that will end up 370 kilometers in altitude to rendezvous with the Tianhe space station core module.

    The crew of Shenzhou-12, from left to right: Operator Tang Hongbo, Commander Nie Haisheng, and Operator Liu Boming

    The Shenzhou-12 mission is the first crewed mission by the Chinese space program in five years and the seventh overall mission of the Shenzhou spacecraft, which conducted its first crewed flight in 2003. For comparison, the seventh U.S. crewed spaceflight was Gemini 3 in 1965, the first flight of the new two seat spacecraft commanded by Gus Grissom, with John Young as the pilot. The seventh Soviet crewed spaceflight was Voskhod 1 in 1964 which flew three cosmonauts in a spacecraft based on the Vostok but with modifications and the ability to fly multiple crewmembers.

    Each crewed Shenzhou mission to date has featured new milestones in Chinese human spaceflight, but Shenzhou-12 is inteded to start an improved cadence of Chinese human spaceflight launches, being the third of 11 missions in the 2021-2022 timeframe to build up the new Chinese space station.

    The first mission in this series was the launch of Tianhe in April. The next was the launch of Tianzhou-2 late last month. The Tianzhou is a robotic cargo spacecraft based on the Tiangong-1 mini space station, and fulfills a similar role to the Chinese program that Progress and Cygnus fulfill for ISS.

    The Tianzhou-2 cargo ship was filled with supplies for the Shenzhou-12 crew and had to dock successfully to Tianhe before the Shenzhou mission could go ahead this month.

    The Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft docking to Tianhe – via CCTV

    The Shenzhou-12 mission will be followed by the Tianzhou-3 robotic cargo flight in September and the Shenzhou-13 crew mission in October, making 2021 the first year with multiple Chinese crewed launches. For 2022, the Chinese space station flight manifest features the Tianzhou-4 and Shenzhou-14 flights in the spring, the Tianzhou-5 and Shenzhou-15 flights in the fall, and the Wentian and Mengtian scientific modules set for summer launches.

    The Shenzhou-12 mission is planned to dock with the Tianhe space station core module as early as six hours after liftoff, though the actual docking time is not yet known. The crew members will enter the station and outfit it for their three-month mission. They will no doubt find the core module, with a living space of 50 cubic meters, roomier than the Shenzhou spacecraft they launched on.

    The Tianhe core module, like the Mir core module and ISS Zvezda module, features six docking ports and a robotic crane to move future additional modules to their correct docking ports. The Wentian and Mengtian science modules will have most of the equipment and capability needed for science and spacewalks, but the Tianhe module will have some experiment capability for the Shenzhou-12 and 13 mission crewmembers to use.

    The Tianhe’s main function is as a control center and living quarters for the station, and the Shenzhou-12 crew will be the first to use the living quarters as well as the control systems. The Shenzhou-12 crew is also planned to conduct two spacewalks during their mission.

    Render of two Shenzhou spacecraft docked to Tianhe – via Mack Crawford for NSF/L2

    The Shenzhou-12 crew is expected to be the first of many to reside aboard the Chinese Space Station, and not all occupants are expected to be Chinese. Russia has announced that it will fly Soyuz spacecraft and crews to the Chinese station from Vostochny or Kourou, and the European Space Agency has an agreement with the Chinese space agency CNSA as well for its astronauts and research to use the Chinese station.

    China has also signed an agreement with the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs to allow the Chinese station to host international experiments, and some of these experiments have already been chosen. In the future, this cooperation could extend to hosting astronauts from developing countries without their own program, along with ESA and Russian crewmembers.

    ESA astronauts Matthias Maurer and Samantha Cristoforetti have trained with the Chinese program and its taikonauts, as part of preparations for a future cooperative spaceflight. As ESA astronaut Maurer stated, “I am very much looking forward to expanding our cooperation with our Chinese friends into space.”

    The Chinese Space Station is also planned to host a Hubble Space Telescope-class orbiting astronomical observatory known as Xuntian, scheduled for launch in 2024. This observatory would fly free in its own orbit to conduct observations and would dock with the station periodically for servicing.

    The Shenzhou-12 mission is another step in China’s plans to become a increasingly prominent spacefaring power. These plans will expand the number of humans in space and are expected include plans for a crewed landing on the Moon sometime in the next 10-15 years.

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