The Embraer ERJ Family: What Are The Different Models?

Founded in 1969 in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica (Embraer) has grown…

The Embraer ERJ Family: What Are The Different Models?

Founded in 1969 in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil, Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica (Embraer) has grown to become the third-largest commercial aircraft manufacturer after Boeing and Airbus. With this in mind, we thought we would take a look at the Embraer ERJ-Jet family of aircraft and see how the planes differ from one another.

The ERJ145 was the most popular variant. Photo: Getty Images

After noticing that Airbus and Boeing were concentrating on building larger planes, the Brazilian aerospace company saw a gap in the market for smaller regional jets. Designed for what Embraer perceived would be a new market for regional jet aircraft where speed and comfort would trump the fuel savings of turboprop planes, Embraer created the ERJ-family.

The engines moved to the rear

Given the name the EMB145, the first ERJ family flight took place on August 11, 1995. Over the next two years, changes were made that saw the plane’s wing-mounted engines move to a rear-fuselage-mounted position. Based on its new ERJ145 design, Embraer re-introduced the plane in 1999 in three versions the ERJ135, ERJ140, and ERJ145. Each aircraft in the ERJ-family has a swept-back wing and is powered by two Rolls-Royce AE3007 turbofan engines.

ERJ135

Explicitly built for markets with low demand, the ERJ135 allows airlines to achieve the right balance between frequency and capacity. Rather than flying one or two flights a day with larger aircraft, the ERJ135 allowed airlines to offer more frequent flights at different times of the day. Doing this gave customers more options while allowing airlines to deploy larger planes on routes where the demand is more significant.

ERJ135
The ERJ135 could seat 30 or 32 passengers, depending on the seat pitch. Photo: Getty Images

ERJ135 Specifications

The typical seat capacity is 30 seats with a 36-inch pitch or 32 seats with a 31-inch pitch.

Weights & Payload

  • Maximum Takeoff Weight = 20,000 kg / 44,092 lb
  • Maximum Landing Weight = 18,500 kg / 40,785 lb
  • Maximum Payload = 4,499 kg / 9,918 lb
  • Maximum Usable Fuel = 5,136 kg / 11,322 lb (6,396 l / 1,690 gal)

Performance

  • Max Cruise Speed = M 0.78
  • Time to Climb to FL350 = 15 minutes
  • Takeoff Field Length = 1,330 m / 4,364 ft
  • Landing Field Length = 1,360 m / 4,462 ft
  • Service Ceiling = 37,000 ft
  • Range = 1,750 NM / 3,243 km

ERJ140

Offering the same operating efficiencies as the ERJ35, the ERJ140 offers airlines an increased seat capacity while offering the same comfort and range.

ERJ-140 Specifications
The typical seat capacity of the ERJ-140 is 44 seats with a 31-inch pitch.

Weights & Payload

  • Maximum Takeoff Weight = 21,100 kg / 46,517 lb
  • Maximum Landing Weight = 18,700 kg / 41,226 lb
  • Maximum Payload = 5,292 kg / 11,666 lb
  • Maximum Usable Fuel= 5,136 kg / 11,322 lb (6,396 l / 1,690 gal

Performance

  • Max Cruise Speed = M 0.78
  • Time to Climb to FL350 = 6 minutes
  • Takeoff Field Length = 1,270 m / 4,167 ft
  • Landing Field Length = 1,380 m / 4,528 ft
  • Service Ceiling = 37,000 ft
  • Range = 1,650 NM / 3,058 km

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ERJ145

Unveiled at the 1989 Paris Air Show, the ERJ145 is arguably the most popular member of the ERJ-family of jets. The ERJ145 is the largest model in the line-up with 50 seats. According to Embraer, the ERJ145 operates with 36 airlines in 26 counties and has more than 26 million flight hours.
ERJ-145 Specifications
Typically ERJ145s are configured with 50 seats that have a 31-inch pitch.

Weights & Payload

  • Maximum Takeoff Weight = 22,000 kg / 48,501 lb
  • Maximum Landing Weight = 19,300 kg / 42,549 lb
  • Maximum Payload = 5,786 kg / 12,755 lb
  • Maximum Usable Fuel = 5,136 kg / 11,322 lb (6,396 l / 1,690 gal

Performance

  • Max Cruise Speed = M 0.78
  • Time to Climb to FL350 = 18 min
  • Takeoff Field Length = 1,380 m / 4,528 ft
  • Landing Field Length = 1,400 m / 4,593 ft
  • Service Ceiling = 37,000 ft
  • Range = 1,550 NM / 2,873 km
Embraer ERJ-145 Getty
The production of ERJ jets stopped in 2020. Photo: Getty Images

In response to airlines asking for a regional jet that they could operate on longer no-stop routes, Embraer took its most popular ERJ jet and increased its range. Called the ERJ145XR, the plane can fly 2,000 nautical miles, an increase of 450 miles compared to the standard ERJ145. Production of the Embraer ERJ- family of jets ended in 2020 after 1,231 planes were built.

Have you ever flown on an Embraer ERJ-family jet? If so, please tell us what you like or dislike about the plane in the comments.

Source : Simple Flying More   

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Why Are Loose Bags Only Loaded On Some Planes?

Loading aircraft with baggage, and cargo, is a vital part of operations. It’s not something we often think…

Why Are Loose Bags Only Loaded On Some Planes?

Loading aircraft with baggage, and cargo, is a vital part of operations. It’s not something we often think about – unless there are problems with it, of course. Baggage loading and storage vary between aircraft. On smaller aircraft, this tends to happen manually, but containers are sometimes used.

Baggage is loaded manually onto most narrowbody aircraft. Photo: Southwest Airlines

Baggage handling

Getting baggage from the check-in area, through the airport, and onto aircraft is an important part of airport infrastructure. All large airports use some form of an automated Baggage Handling System. This takes tagged bags from check-in to a loading or storage area using a system of conveyors and deflectors. This can also enable security screening.

Baggage is then stored or loaded onto carts for aircraft delivery. This has been mostly a manual process up to now. But some airlines have started to look at automation.

British Airways began trialing automated luggage delivery at Heathrow in late 2019. This uses automated carts to take the loaded baggage direct from the Baggage Handling System to the aircraft. ANA also carried out a small-scale trial of a fully autonomous baggage system in early 2020.

BA autonomous baggage cart
An autonomous baggage cart used in a trial at London Heathrow. Photo: British Airways

Simple Flying looked at the idea of robotics being used for baggage sorting and loading. This has the potential to speed loading as well as reduce errors and baggage loss.

Bulk loading the aircraft

Once baggage is sorted and delivered, it needs to be loaded onto the aircraft. This is where the process differs between aircraft types. On smaller aircraft, it will usually be manually loaded into the aircraft hold. This is done on all regional and most narrowbody aircraft. Although, the use of containers is possible for the A320 family.

Loose baggage loading is known as ‘bulk loading.’ This will usually take place using a conveyor to carry the bags into the aircraft hold (although this may not be needed on the smallest aircraft). Baggage is then loaded and stored securely. Nets are used to secure bags and sometimes to divide the hold into sections. Ensuring limited movement of bags during flight is important for weight distribution.

A320 baggage hold
The A320 baggage hold, with nets used to secure baggage. Photo: Dtom via Wikimedia

Stay informed:  for our daily and weekly aviation news digests.

Using containers

The alternative to bulk loading is to use containers known as Unit Load Devices. Securing bags in the aircraft hold is important, and this would be much harder (and more time-consuming) on a larger aircraft. All widebody aircraft (and sometimes the A320) are loaded instead with containers. Bagge is pre-loaded into the appropriate ULD, and this is then secured into the aircraft hold.

ULDs come in different sizes for different aircraft. The most common is the LD3 container. This is used on all Airbus widebodies and the Boeing 747, 777, and 787. Other containers are optimized for different sized aircraft holds, including the 747 and the 767.

For the A320, a reduced-sized LD3 container (known as LD3-45) is available. This has a reduced height to fit the smaller hold. Containers are not used for the 737.

LD3-45 ULD
An LD3-45 ULD used for the A320. Photo: Klaus Schinzel via Wikimedia

Cargo loading

Cargo is loaded the same way as baggage. All widebody aircraft (and possibly the A320) use containers. An important advantage of containers in cargo use is the ability to pre-load and store them. They also allow much easier transfer between aircraft as most containers are interchangeable between types.

Cargo containers
Cargo containers can be stored and transferred easily. Photo: Getty Images

Some recent cargo operations have seen exceptions to this. With the changes in 2020 and 2021, some airlines have quickly converted passenger aircraft to carry cargo. Using the main compartment to carry cargo has helped airlines keep flying and adapt to cargo demand growth.

Asiana A350
Asiana was the first airline to convert an A350 for cargo. Photo: Airbus

Ground handling operations and baggage loading are vital parts of airport operations and aircraft turnaround. Feel free to discuss specifics more in the comments. 

Source : Simple Flying More   

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